Benchmarks . [68] The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated from basalt rock in the first century CE,[69] and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. Municipal Corporations. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The average PM2.5 level on Diwali day in Mumbai was 76 microgramme per cubic metre (μg / m3) — up from 53 μg / m3 recorded in 2019. [156] The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi). [234], The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. [152] The MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. [204], It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). [191] Despite competition from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai has carved a niche for itself in the information technology industry. Ghansoli 400 701. Zone I:- consisting of Greater Mumbai and areas of Thane Municipal Corporation and Mira-Bhayander Municipal Council. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. It varies between a dry period extending from October to May and a wet period peaking in June. The Owner shall construct the structure for Road Depot as required by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai on the portion of the land under reservation, having area of 50% (fifty percent) of the area of entire reserved site. [135] Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment. Its population as per the 2011 census was 12,442,373. 2. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, under the jurisdiction of the municipal corporation, is headed by the chief fire officer, who is assisted by four deputy chief fire officers and six divisional officers. [254][255], Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes. [236] It is operated by the Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the Indian Railways. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. According to the treaty, the Seven Islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. [100] The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Muslim Koli[101][102][103][104] admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672,[105] Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673,[106] and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673. The district along with Mumbai City district and other suburban localities make up Greater Mumbai on Salsette Island.The district occupies an area of 446 km². [51], By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi. [62][63], Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Isle of Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). 400 703. Of course! [260], Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercraft and catamarans. [272], The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. [133] The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. It is situated between latitudes 18054’ and 19018’ North and longitudes 70047’ and 73000’ East. [171] The record high is 42.2 °C (108 °F) set on 14 April 1952,[174] and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) set on 27 January 1962. The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. The total population of Mumbai UA/Metropolitan region is 18,394,912. Figures (in lakhs) As per Census 2011. 400 614. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001;[313] that is, 62% of all Mumbaikars live in informal slums. [384], The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Bombay),[385] Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT / UICT),[386] Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),[387] which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, along with SNDT Women's University are the autonomous universities located in Mumbai. [110] [372] The schools are affiliated with either of the following boards: The primary education system of the MCGM is the largest urban primary education system in Asia. [163] Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. ", "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashtra State", "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City", Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, "Mumbai floods: Why India's cities are struggling with extreme rainfall", "Will Mumbai flood this year too? Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters. [409] In the second season, the final of the 2016 Premier Badminton League was held between home-squad Mumbai Rockets and the Delhi Dashers (formerly Delhi Acers), the visitors eventually claiming the title. [232], Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. [111] Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. [370] Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. [161], Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. ", "Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year", The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island 1978, "Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth", International Society for New Institutional Economics, "Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces – 313 years ago", "BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs", "About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)", "The Great Mumbai Textile Strike... 25 Years On", "From mills to malls, the sky is the limit", "Maharashtra may revisit redevelopment of textile mill land", "Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva)", "HM announces measures to enhance security", "Mumbai blasts: Death toll rises to 26 - Hindustan Times", "Three bomb blasts in Mumbai, 18 dead, over 130 injured", "Mumbai a global financial centre? [27][117] On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane). [222] A member of parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. [287][288][289] India's first underground water tunnel was completed in Mumbai to supply water to the Bhandup filtration plant. 1. [244], Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008,[233] which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. [362], Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season. Around 1200 tons of C&D waste per day (TPD) is being generated in the 24 wards of Mumbai from ‘debris on call’ service & unclaimed debris. [185][186] In December 2019, IIT Bombay, in partnership with the McKelvey School of Engineering of Washington University in St. Louis, launched the Aerosol and Air Quality Research Facility to study air pollution in Mumbai, among other Indian cities. [290][291], About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. The Bene Israeli Jewish community of Bombay, who migrated from the Konkan villages, south of Bombay, are believed to be the descendants of the Jews of Israel who were shipwrecked off the Konkan coast, probably in the year 175 BCE, during the reign of the Greek ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million. [72][73], Between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas,[74] before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. [157], Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. [343], Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. [33][34] Mumbai has the eighth-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world,[35] and Mumbai's billionaires had the highest average wealth of any city in the world in 2008. [187], Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. [218] The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay Municipal Corporation elections. [340][341], Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. [15] Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. [256], The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. [138] The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. [358] Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. [36][37] The city houses important financial institutions and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. [24], The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. [190] Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India's GDP. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. [127] The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. 0 1 4 0 6@sb Greater Mumbai accounts for most of Mumbai's territory. Andheri (West) 400 058. [240], The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006.[401]. The opening ceremony was also held in Mumbai while the finals in Delhi. However Compare Infobase Limited and its directors do not own any responsibility for the correctness or authenticity of the same. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. [140] In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains. [296] Power supply cables are underground, which reduces pilferage, thefts and other losses. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. [249] BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London. [412], Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. In 1950 Mumbai expanded northward, embracing the large island of Salsette, which was joined to Bombay Island by a … [166], Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district. [234] Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG),[235] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. [109] The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739. [99] The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The metropolis accounts major portion of India’s international trade and government’s revenue, from being one of the foremost centers of education, science and technological research and advancement. Louis. [307] Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. [322] According to the 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board, Mumbai is the noisiest city in India, ahead of Lucknow, Hyderabad and Delhi. Containment Zones in Mumbai On March 31, 2020, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) declared 141 Containment Zones in the … Mumbai (English: /mʊmˈbaɪ/, Marathi: [ˈmumbəi]; also known as Bombay /bɒmˈbeɪ/, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Greater Mumbai is an important part of Mumbai, the city which never sleeps. The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach. [366] Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as Sirius. km.) [268] There are five tolled entry points to the city by road. Balkum 400 608. [337] Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. [96] The Portuguese also built several fortifications around the city like the Bombay Castle, Castella de Aguada (Castelo da Aguada or Bandra Fort), and Madh Fort. The living space is 4.5 square metres per person. [384] [90] Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. [388] In April 2015, IIT Bombay launched the first U.S.-India joint EMBA program alongside Washington University in St. km.) The Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) and the International Infotech Park (Navi Mumbai) offer excellent facilities to IT companies. [320], The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai. Mumbra is a city and suburb of Thane district in Western India in the state of Maharashtra, within the Greater Mumbai area. Some 15.4 million live in Greater Mumbai (Mumbai and its suburbs). Mumbai's suburban district occupies most of the island. Geographical Area (As per Census) Greater Mumbai (sq. India Finance", "It's not so bad as we thought: Mumbai shows improvement on human development index | Mumbai News - Times of India", National Commissioner Linguistic Minorities 50th report, page 131, "Evolution of the Corporation, Historical Milestones", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above", "Thirty of India's 68 billionaires live in Mumbai", "With 68 billionaires, India ranks 7th globally; Mumbai leads in India with 30", "New millionaires hope to serve as role models for India's lower castes", "10 worst oil spills that cost trillions in losses : Business", "Development of Mumbai International Airport (NMIA)", "Poonam Mahajan explains why Mumbai is at the very heart of India story", "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home", "Richest Cities In The World: The Top 10 Cities With The Most Billionaires", "Why Did Bombay Become Mumbai? On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. [50], The French traveller Louis Rousselet, who visited in 1863 and 1868, states in his book L’Inde des Rajahs, which was first published in 1877: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple". Greater Mumbai (M Corp.) (Part) WARD NO.-1351 is one of the ward of Greater Mumbai City in Area not under any Sub-district Taluka of Mumbai Suburban, Maharashtra. 6640. The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai. The powers of the commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the corporation or the standing committee. [145] For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. [86] From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema[336]—Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek and Thane is north of Vasai Creek. Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. [160] The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky. [150] The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for infrastructure development and planning of Mumbai Metropolitan Region. [302] Mumbai, along with the area served by telephone exchanges in Navi Mumbai and Kalyan is classified as a Metro telecom circle. By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. The English were in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over Bombay, as they recognised its strategic natural harbour and its natural isolation from land attacks. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. while in the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FC[403] and Air-India. Belapur (CBD) 400 611. [46], Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690),[45][47] and Bon Bahia. [213], Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. [273] It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. [243] Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Nifty 14,563.45 78.7. [262], Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, Find Distance from Greater Mumbai to other Indian Cities. Aptly called the gateway of India, Maharashtra is one of India’s biggest commercial and industrial centres, and it has played a significant role in the country’s… [250] Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. [40][41] In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). [210] The Mumbai Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. km and comprises Municipal Corporations of Greater Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan, Navi Mumbai and Ulhasnagar; 15 municipal towns; 7 non-municipal urban centers; and 995 villages. 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